The two BLACK icons, Marcus Garvey and Minilek II.

August is the Unique month to Pan Afrikanism history since it brought to black people the legendary His Imperial Majesty Emperor Menelik II King of Kings of Ethiopia and the founder and visionary Pan Afrikanist Marcus Garvey.

Menilek II, also spelled Menelik, original name Sahle Miriam, also spelled Sahlé Mariam, (born Aug. 17, 1844, Ankober, Shewa [Shoa], Ethiopia—died Dec. 12, 1913, Addis Ababa), king of Shewa (or Shoa; 1865–89), and emperor of Ethiopia (1889–1913). One of Ethiopia’s greatest rulers, he expanded the empire almost to its present-day borders, repelled an Italian invasion in 1896, and carried out a wide-ranging program of modernization.


Marcus Garvey, in full Marcus Moziah Garvey, (born August 17, 1887, St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica—died June 10, 1940, London, England), charismatic black leader who organized the first important American black nationalist movement (1919–26), based in New York City’s Harlem.


Menilek’s father was Haile Malakot, later negus (king) of Shewa. His mother was a court servant who married Haile Malakot shortly after Sahle Miriam was born. His forefathers had been rulers of Menz, the heartland of Shewa, since the 17th century, and it has been claimed that further back they were related to the Solomonid line of emperors who ruled Ethiopia between 1268 and 1854 (alternate dates 1270–1855). The crown name Menilek II was significant: Menilek I was the legendary son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Makeda).


Largely self-taught, Garvey attended school in Jamaica until he was 14. After traveling in Central America and living in London from 1912 to 1914, he returned to Jamaica, where, with a group of friends, he founded (August 1, 1914) the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League, usually called the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which sought, among other things, to build in Africa a black-governed nation.

Menelik, king of Shewa


King of Shewa

Sahle Miriam contrived to escape from Magdela in 1865 and returned to Shewa, which had remained in a state of sporadic unrest and revolt against Tewodros. Although only 21 years of age, he was able to displace Bezebeh, who had been appointed ruler by the emperor in 1859, and subsequently declared himself negus of the province. Sahle Miriam stood six feet tall and had a dark complexion and fine white teeth, but smallpox had left its marks on his face. As a diplomat he made a great impression on the foreign emissaries who visited his court. With their help he imported firearms, the better to equip his armies and the garrisons and settlers that came in their wake.

On the death of Tewodros in 1868, Sahle Miriam, as negus of Shewa, aspired to the position of emperor. But he was not the only claimant and had to submit first to Tekle Giorgis (1868–72) and Yohannes IV (1872–89). Before Yohannes died fighting the Sudanese in 1889, he obliged Sahle Miriam to direct his ambitions mainly to the south and east. Sahle Miriam subsequently incorporated Arusi, Harer (Harar), Jima, Kefa (Kaffa), and the several kingdoms and states of southern Ethiopia within his domains. By the time of Yohannes’ death, Sahle Miriam had emerged as the strongest man in Ethiopia and was able to assume the imperial crown for which he had waited so long.

During the period of his rivalry with Emperor Yohannes IV and the latter’s son, Mengesha, Menilek appeared to befriend the Italians, but a quarrel later developed. The Italians interpreted Article XVII of the Treaty of Wichale (Uccialli), concluded in 1889 by the Italians and Menilek, as giving Italy a protectorate over Ethiopia. It is quite inconceivable that Menilek would have agreed to his historic country becoming a protectorate. When he learned of the Italian interpretation, which was gaining some acceptance in Europe, he at once denied it and, in 1893, renounced the whole treaty.


After two years in London – where he received an education that would likely have been unavailable to him in the Americas because of the color of his skin – Garvey returned to Jamaica. It was during this time that he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association.

Garvey also began corresponding with Booker T. Washington, the African-American leader, author and activist who had been born into slavery. In 1916, Garvey boarded a ship bound for the United States, where – as a dramatic and invigorating public speaker – he intended to go on a lecture tour.

He ended up settling in New York City, where he first spoke at the famous St. Mark’s Church before embarking on a 38-city speaking tour. He also took on work in a print shop to make ends meet.

While in New York, he authored the “Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World,” which was ratified at the convention of the Universal Negro Improvement Association at Madison Square Garden in 1920. It was during this meeting that Garvey was also elected “Provisional President” of Africa.


Marcus Garvey

Defeat of Italy at Adwa

The Italians had established themselves along the Red Sea coast, and the governor of the Italian colony of Eritrea, after much intrigue and several minor military skirmishes, risked a major confrontation. The Italian army was defeated by the Ethiopians in one of the greatest battles in the history of Africa—the Battle of Adwa, on March 1, 1896. A settlement after the battle canceled the Treaty of Wichale and acknowledged the full sovereignty and independence of Ethiopia, but the Italians were allowed to retain Eritrea.

After Adwa, Menilek’s Ethiopia was at once accepted by the European powers as a real political force. The crushing defeat of a European army greatly enhanced Menilek’s international reputation, causing a host of foreign advisers, ambassadors, emissaries, and adventurers to flow into the country.

Menilek’s later activities as emperor included the creation of ministries, the initiation of modern education, and the construction of telephone and telegraph systems and of a railway from Djibouti, on the Gulf of Aden, to Addis Ababa, the emperor’s new capital in the highlands of Shewa. Beginning in 1906 or 1907, Menilek suffered a series of paralytic strokes, and power passed to his wife, Empress Taitu, to Ras Tesemma, who became regent, and to Lij Iyasu, the grandson who was to succeed him. The stricken emperor finally died in 1913.

Failing to attract a following in Jamaica, Garvey went to the United States (1916) and soon established branches of the UNIA in Harlem and the other principal ghettos of the North. By 1919 the rising “Black Moses” claimed a following of about 2,000,000, though the exact number of association members was never clear. From the platform of the Association’s Liberty Hall in Harlem, he spoke of a “new Negro,” proud of being black. His newspaper, Negro World, told of the exploits of heroes of the race and of the splendours of African culture. He taught that blacks would be respected only when they were economically strong, and he preached an independent black economy within the framework of white capitalism. To forward these ends, he established the Negro Factories Corporation and the Black Star Line (1919), as well as a chain of restaurants and grocery stores, laundries, a hotel, and a printing press.He reached the height of his power in 1920, when he presided at an international convention in Liberty Hall, with delegates present from 25 countries. The affair was climaxed by a parade of 50,000 through the streets of Harlem, led by Garvey in flamboyant array.His slipshod business methods, however, and his doctrine of racial purity and separatism (he even approved of the white racist Ku Klux Klan because it sought to separate the races) brought him bitter enemies among established black leaders, including labour leader A. Philip Randolph and W.E.B. Du Bois, head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Garvey’s influence declined rapidly when he and other UNIA members were indicted for mail fraud in 1922 in connection with the sale of stock for the Black Star Line. He served two years of a five-year prison term, but in 1927 his sentence was commuted by Pres. Calvin Coolidge, and he was deported as an undesirable alien. He was never able to revive the movement abroad, and he died in virtual obscurity.

Today is 174th birth day of HIM Emperor Menelik and 131st years of the iconic black Afrikans and Heroes.


Happy Birth Day!


Emperor Menelik’s voice mail to Queen of British Victoria II


Marcus Garvey’s speech “Africans for African”

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