Pan-Africanism is a movement which core goal is to unify, uplift and inspire all black people, economically, socially and politically, is an African pride of intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent. It is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social and political progress. At its core Pan-Africanism is a belief that African peoples, both on the continent and in the diaspora, share not merely a common history, but a common destiny. It was a movement based on self-reliance of all black people. Jomo Kenyatta and Nelson Mandela are not qualified to be in any case Pan-Africanists, as they modified old traps.
MARCUS MOSIAH GARVEY.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr was a Jamaican born political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur and great orator. He top our list as he was a pioneer of Pan –Africanism movement. He was a proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, inspiring the Nation of Islam and Rastafarian movement. Garvey not only dreamt of liberating black people politically and economically, he put that dream into action by founding the United Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A) with the goal of uniting all of African diaspora to establish a country and absolute government of their own. He also founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African communities League. Garvey advanced a Pan-African philosophy which inspired a global mass movement, known as Garveyism.
Kwame Nkrumah was a Ghanaian politician and a revolutionary. He was the first prime minister and president of Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah stands out in African history as one of its most illustrious and outstanding sons who played a large in the founding of Pan-Africanism movement during the continent’s prolonged struggles with western imperialism. His notable achievements and ideologies are still in use today. He is remembered as the staunch supporter of self-reliance in this continent. He was against any graft.
Commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi. He was until his demise October 2011, Muammar Gaddafi did some truly amazing things for his country and repeatedly tried to unite the whole of Africa. Gaddafi was until his death planned to unite this continent with a single currency dinner backed with gold, this would see Africa as the major global economic power, as it would have its own bargaining power, he was following the footstep of great pioneer Marcus Garvey who coined the term “United States of Africa”. This was a move which would have thrown the world economy into major chaos. So much achievements not to mention here for this great Pan-African.
Thomas Sankara was a Burkinabe pro- people, revolutionary, Marxist, Pan-Africanist and president of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987. Viewed by supporters as a charismatic and icon figure of revolution, he is sometimes referred to as “Africa’s Che Guevara”. He achieved more with less than five years he was in power. At only 33 years old he embarked on revolutionary paradigm shift, bringing real power down to the people, advocating for policies on African self-reliance, food security, gender parity and dismantling of the neo-colonial development structure that continues to render African states beheld by foreign masters for survival. The Burkanabe revolution is no doubt remains a relevant ideological model in Africa for raising mass consciousness and battling poverty.
Patrice Emery Lumumba was a Congolese politician and independence who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent of DRC from June until September 1960. Lumumba’s murder in 1961 has made him a symbol of struggle for champions of African nations attempts to unite and to break free of the influence of the European powers that once colonised the continent.
Bantu Steve Biko was a Southern African anti-apartheid activist. His ideologies were based on African nationalist and African socialist. He founded the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s. He focused on psychological empowerment of black people. The apartheid regime came to see Biko as a big threat and he was placed under a banning order, severely restricting his activities. Following his arrest in August in 1977, Biko was severely beaten by state security officers, resulting in his death. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral.
The last Emperor of Ethiopia had his fails as the Emperor of a great nation with a great history, Ethiopia, he tried his best to modernise Ethiopia but in 1974 a time when famine, worsening unemployment and the political stagnation of his government prompted some of the army to mutiny. Haile Selassie played a major role alongside Julius Nyerere and Kwame Nkrumah in the formation of OAU, which was headquartered in Addis Ababa. All in all, he was the brain behind the formation of OAU.
Malcom X was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist, he was a very courageous advocate for the rights of blacks all over the world. He indicted white Americans in the harshest terms of its crimes against black Americans. This man died for the sake of liberating black people just like Steve Biko.
Julius Nyerere or Mwalimu in Swahili was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician and political theorist. He had his fails as a socialist, he failed Tanzanians economically, by the time he resigned in 1985, Tanzania was still one of the poorest countries in the world. Good on him, he apologised to Tanzanians for failing to develop Tanzania economically through industrialisation. Exporting raw materials then in return import finished products from the same raw materials as the norm to the most African countries, socialism was bound to fail. One notable achievement is, he played a major role in liberating other countries under colonialism, fighting apartheid in South Africa and the formation of OAU.
Samora Machel was a Mozambican military commander, politician and revolutionary. Just like Thomas Sankara, Samora was a socialist in the tradition of Marxism-Leninism. Samora played a major role in liberating Zimbabwe from white minority rule. He advocated for self-reliance, of particularly industrialisation of this continent.
Frantz Fanon, born in French colony of Martinique, he was among the most influential Pan-Africanist of all time. He was a psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary and writer. He was a radical Pan-Africanist and Marxist humanist who inspired many including Steve Biko, Algerian National Liberation movements and other radical political organisations in Palestine, Sri Lanka, South Africa and the United States. He published many books including the famous The Wretched of the Earth (1961). To me he was the greatest.
He was a Bissau-Guinean and Cape Verdean agricultural engineer, intellectual, poet, theoretician, revolutionary, political organiser, nationalist and diplomat. He was among the fore most anti-colonial leaders. As a revolutionary theorist, as a guerrilla fighter, inspiring, agitator, and an uncompromising internationalist, Cabral’s legacy continue to inform the global struggle against imperialism and for socialism. He formed the most successful guerrilla movement in Africa and a strong disciplined political party: the PAIGC. Fidel Castro referred to him as “one of the most lucid and brilliant leaders in Africa, who instilled in us tremendous confidence in the future and the successes of his struggle for liberation”
This is another Pan-Africanist from America. He was a sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. Bois became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard University. His work still inspires many today.
GAMAL ABDEL NASSER
He was the second president of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970. His notable achievements was inspiring Africa to unite against imperialism. He built the famous Aswan High Dam with the help of the Soviet Union, Industrialisation was accelerated, land reforms broke up Egypt’s large private estates, campaign against corruption and women were accorded more rights than they had ever had.
KHALID ABDUL MUHAMMAD
Born Harold Moore, he was an American black nationalist who came to be a leader in the Nation of Islam and then the New Black Panther Party. He was a strong and unapologetically kept on denouncing white supremacy.
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
Booker T. Washington was an American educator, author, orator, and advisory to presidents of the United States. He was a key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League. He was among the pioneers of the term “Pan-Africanism.
You may wonder, but the radical speech and radical change you see Malema is demanding, are the same radical changes all the Pan-Africanists were demanding with equal or even extra force than that of Malema. Malema is Africa’s modern day Pan-Africanist. He is advocating Africa without borders. He stands for Africans, he came to apologise on behalf of all Africans for recent xenophobic attacks in South Africa.
For Nigerians I would prefer this leader over Obasanjo any day. He put Nigerians first over everything else. For only 200 days he spent in office, he achieved a lot more than most Nigerian presidents have had achieved in more than five years.
IDI AMIN DADA
Idi Amin Dada the victim of media propaganda, was a hero to Ugandans and other black nationalists but villain to imperialists, who in turn established media propaganda. While Uganda got its political independence on October 1962, Uganda got its economical independence in 1971 under field Marshal Idi Amin. Idi Amin honestly, just like any other leader in the world, he had his flaws. To your amusement, there are no known victims or relatives of victim whom Idi Amin killed apart from few dissidents who were sponsored by foreign powers to disrupt his rule.
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe was a prominent South African political dissident, who founded the Pan-African congress in opposition to the South African apartheid system. He was among the best Pan Africanist of all time. He was a strong believer in an Africanist future, he rejected any model suggesting working with anyone other than Africans, defining Africans as anyone other than Africans, defining African as anyone who lives in pays his allegiance to Africa and who is prepared to subject to himself to African majority rule.
Little known about him due to the fact that media are focused on Mandela, but he was a radical reformist. He help in fight for liberation in his home country South Africa and Zimbabwe.
He had his fails but you can agree with me he never sold out what he had been fighting for. Freedom is all about political and economic. As an African Union Chairman, Uncle Bob, as popularly known by his supporters. He championed for Africa to be included in UN’s Security Council which make crucial decisions, comprised of Britain, China and Russia. He farther threatened to rally behind the African countries to withdraw from UN if Africa doesn’t accorded the status. What Mugabe lacked is crucial logistics to govern Zimbabwe which was compounded by sanctions like the case of North Korea which had survived sanctions for decades under the ideology of “Juche” coined by North Korea’s founder, Kim ll-sung.
AMY JACQUES GARVEY
Being the wife of Mecus Garvey, this means she was the greatest supporter of Garvey activities, she herself was a journalist and activist in her own right. She was one of the pioneering Black women journalists and publishers of the 20th century. She assumed the leadership of UNIA she became the face of UNIA and representation of the females.
She is a former member of the Black Liberation Army, she is convicted of the murder of State Trooper Werner Foerster. Given of how the American society viewed and treated black people with contempt and violence some years back, Shakur was bound to respond to state sponsored racism. Listed as criminal, to me Assata Shakur was responding to what the society is, that is, garbage in garbage out.
WINNIE MADIKIZELA MANDELA
She was an avatar of liberation and potent symbol of Black womanhood, she stood for what she knew was right for her people until the end.